In the late 1890s, the British film pioneer William Friese-Greene filed a patent for a 3-D movie process. When viewed stereoscopically, it showed that the two images are combined by the brain to produce 3-D depth perception. On June 10, 1915, Edwin S. Porter and William E. Waddell presented tests to an audience at the Astor Theater in New York City. In red-green anaglyph, the audience was presented three reels of tests, which included rural scenes, test shots of Marie Doro, a segment of John Mason playing a number of passages from Jim the Penman (a film released by Famous Players-Lasky that year, but not in 3-D), Oriental dancers, and a reel of footage of Niagara Falls. However, according to Adolph Zukor in his 1953 autobiography The Public Is Never Wrong: My 50 Years in the Motion Picture Industry, nothing was produced in this process after these tests.
The stereoscope was improved by Louis Jules Duboscq, and a famous picture of Queen Victoria was displayed at The Great Exhibition in 1851. In 1855 the Kinematoscope was invented, i.e., the stereo animation camera. The first anaglyph (use of red-and-blue glasses, invented by L.D. DuHauron) movie was produced in 1915 and in 1922 the first public 3D movie was displayed. Stereoscopic 3D television was demonstrated for the first time on August 10, 1928, by John Logie Baird in his company's premises at 133 Long Acre, London. Baird pioneered a variety of 3D television systems using electro-mechanical and cathode-ray tube techniques. In 1935 the first 3D color movie was produced. By the Second World War, stereoscopic 3D still cameras for personal use were already fairly common.
In the 1950s, when TV became popular in the United States, many 3D movies were produced. The first such movie was Bwana Devil from United Artists that could be seen all across the US in 1952. One year later, in 1953, came the 3D movie House of Wax which also featured stereophonic sound. Alfred Hitchcock produced his film Dial M for Murder in 3D, but for the purpose of maximizing profits the movie was released in 2D because not all cinemas were able to display 3D films. The Soviet Union also developed 3D films, with Robinzon Kruzo being its first full-length 3D movie, in 1946.
See also: Stereoscopy, 3D display, and 3-D film
There are several techniques to produce and display 3D moving pictures. The basic requirement is to display offset images that are filtered separately to the left and right eye. Two strategies have been used to accomplish this: have the viewer wear eyeglasses to filter the separately offset images to each eye, or have the light source split the images directionally into the viewer's eyes (no glasses required). Common 3D display technology for projecting stereoscopic image pairs to the viewer include:
In a CEATEC 2011 exhibition, Hitachi released glasses-free 3D projection systems that use a set of 24 projectors, lenses, and translucent half mirrors to superimpose 3D images with a horizontal viewing angle of 60 degrees and a vertical viewing angle of 30 degrees. Besides Hitachi, Sony is also working on similar technologies.
Single-view displays project only one stereo pair at a time. Multi-view displays either use head tracking to change the view depending on the viewing angle, or simultaneous projection of multiple independent views of a scene for multiple viewers (automultiscopic). Such multiple views can be created on the fly using the 2D plus depth format.
Various other display techniques have been described, such as holography, volumetric display, and the Pulfrich effect; which was used in Doctor Who Dimensions in Time, in 1993. Also by 3rd Rock From The Sun in 1997, and by the Discovery Channel's Shark Week in 2000.
Stereoscopy is the most widely accepted method for capturing and delivering 3D video. It involves capturing stereo pairs in a two-view setup, with cameras mounted side by side and separated by the same distance as is between a person's pupils. If we imagine projecting an object point in a scene along the line-of-sight for each eye, in turn; to a flat background screen, we may describe the location of this point mathematically using simple algebra. In rectangular coordinates with the screen lying in the Y-Z plane, with the Z axis upward and the Y axis to the right, with the viewer centered along the X axis; we find that the screen coordinates are simply the sum of two terms. One accounting for perspective and the other for binocular shift. Perspective modifies the Z and Y coordinates of the object point, by a factor of D/(D-x), while binocular shift contributes an additional term (to the Y coordinate only) of s*x/(2*(D-x)), where D is the distance from the selected system origin to the viewer (right between the eyes), s is the eye separation (about 7 centimeters), and x is the true x coordinate of the object point. The binocular shift is positive for the left-eye-view and negative for the right-eye-view. For very distant object points, it is obvious that the eyes will be looking along essentially the same line of sight. For very near objects, the eyes may become excessively "cross-eyed". However, for scenes in the greater portion of the field of view, a realistic image is readily achieved by superposition of the left and right images (using the polarization method or synchronized shutter-lens method) provided the viewer is not too near the screen and the left and right images are correctly positioned on the screen. Digital technology has largely eliminated inaccurate superposition that was a common problem during the era of traditional stereoscopic films.
Multi-view capture uses arrays of many cameras to capture a 3D scene through multiple independent video streams. Plenoptic cameras, which capture the light field of a scene, can also be used to capture multiple views with a single main lens.Depending on the camera setup, the resulting views can either be displayed on multi-view displays, or passed along for further image processing.
After capture, stereo or multi-view image data can be processed to extract 2D plus depth information for each view, effectively creating a device-independent representation of the original 3D scene. These data can be used to aid inter-view image compression or to generate stereoscopic pairs for multiple different view angles and screen sizes.
2D plus depth processing can be used to recreate 3D scenes even from a single view and convert legacy film and video material to a 3D look, though a convincing effect is harder to achieve and the resulting image will likely look like a cardboard miniature.
These TV sets are high-end and generally include Ethernet, USB player and recorder, Bluetooth and USB Wi-Fi.
3D-ready TV sets are those that can operate in 3D mode (in addition to regular 2D mode) using one of several display technologies to recreate a stereoscopic image. These TV sets usually support HDMI 1.4 and a minimum (input and output) refresh rate of 120 Hz; glasses may be sold separately.
Philips was developing 3D television sets that would be available for the consumer market by about 2011 without the need for special glasses (autostereoscopy). However it was canceled due to the slow adoption of customers going from 2D to 3D.
In August 2010, Toshiba announced plans to bring a range of autosteroscopic TVs to market by the end of the year.
The Chinese manufacturer TCL Corporation has developed a 42-inch (110 cm) LCD 3D TV called the TD-42F, which is currently available in China. This model uses a lenticular system and does not require any special glasses (autostereoscopy). It is not as good as 3D active glasses. It currently sells for approximately $20,000.
Onida,LG, Samsung, Sony, and Philips intend to increase their 3D TV offering with plans to make 3D TV sales account for over 50% of their respective TV
distribution offering by 2012. It is expected that the screens will use a mixture of technologies until there is standardisation across the industry. Samsung offers the LED 7000, LCD 750, PDP 7000 TV sets and the Blu-ray 6900.
Full 3D TV sets include LG Full HD 3D (1920x1080p, this is, 2K x 1K; and 600 Hz) and Panasonic Full HD 3D (1920x1080p, this is, 2K x 1K; and 600 Hz).
Toshiba has shown 20 and 12 inch autostereoscopic (glasses-free) LCD 3D TV sets for commercial launch, with a 1280x720 resolution. By systematically aligning pixels and adopting a perpendicular lenticular sheet, Toshiba's LCD panel eliminates blurring or the vertical wave pattern (caused by interference in the display cycle) that plagues other autostereoscopic 3-D technologies. The viewing angle is about 40°, doubling the previous approaches. Toshiba's glasses-free 3D TV does suffer initial limitations such as viewing distance and cost, the 12 inch model will sell for roughly $1400. Toshiba are expected to deliver their glasses-free 3D TV on a global scale by 2015.
A September 2011 Cnet review touted Toshiba's 55ZL2 as "the future of television". Due to the demanding nature of auto-stereoscopic 3D technology, the display features a 3840x2160 display; however, there is no video content available at this resolution. That said, it utilizes a multi-core processor to provide excellent upscaling to the "4k2k" resolution. Using a directional lenticular lenslet filter, the display generates nine 3D views. This technology commonly creates deadspots, which Toshiba avoids by using an eye-tracking camera to adjust the image. The reviewers also note that the 3d resolution for a 1080p signal looks more similar to 720p and lacks parallax, which reduces immersion.
The entertainment industry is expected to adopt a common and compatible standard for 3D in home electronics. To present faster frame rate in high definition to avoid judder, enhancing 3-D film, televisions and broadcasting, other unresolved standards are the type of 3D glasses (passive or active), including bandwidth considerations, subtitles, recording format, and a Blu-ray standard. With improvements in digital technology, in the late 2000s, 3D movies have become more practical to produce and display, putting competitive pressure behind the creation of 3D television standards. There are several techniques for Stereoscopic Video Coding, and stereoscopic distribution formatting including anaglyph, quincunx, and 2D plus Delta.
Content providers, such as Disney, DreamWorks, and other Hollywood studios, and technology developers, such as Philips, asked[when?]SMPTE for the development of a 3DTV standard in order to avoid a battle of formats and to guarantee consumers that they will be able to view the 3D content they purchase and to provide them with 3D home solutions for all pockets. In August 2008, SMPTE established the "3-D Home Display Formats Task Force" to define the parameters of a stereoscopic 3D mastering standard for content viewed on any fixed device in the home, no matter the delivery channel. It explored the standards that need to be set for 3D content distributed via broadcast, cable, satellite, packaged media, and the Internet to be played-out on televisions, computer screens and other tethered displays. After six months, the committee produced a report to define the issues and challenges, minimum standards, and evaluation criteria, which the Society said would serve as a working document for SMPTE 3D standards efforts to follow. A follow-on effort to draft a standard for 3D content formats was
expected to take another 18 to 30 months.
Production studios are developing an increasing number of 3D titles for the cinema and as many as a dozen companies are actively working on the core technology behind the product. Many have technologies available to demonstrate, but no clear road forward for a mainstream offering has emerged.
Under these circumstances, SMPTE's inaugural meeting was essentially a call for proposals for 3D television; more than 160 people from 80 companies signed up for this first meeting. Vendors that presented their respective technologies at the task force meeting included SENSIO Technologies, Philips, Dynamic Digital Depth (DDD), TDVision TDVision Systems | TDVCodec | TDVCam | TDVisor | TDVirtualCam | FULL HD 3D | 2D+Delta MVC | Stereoscopic ATSC IPTV SAT Cable deployment, and Real D, all of which had 3D distribution technologies.
There are many active 3D projects in SMPTE for both TV and filmmakers. The SMPTE 35PM40 Working Group decided (without influence from the SMPTE Board or any other external influence) that the good progress being made on 3D standards within other SMPTE groups (including the IMF Interoperable Master Format) means that its “overview” project would be best published as an Engineering Report. Broadcasters and other participants are still very active in 3D development, and SMPTE continues to be the forum where everyone from content creator to consumer manufacturer has a voice.
However, SMPTE is not the only 3D standards group. Other organizations such as the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA), 3D@home Consortium, ITU and the Entertainment Technology Center (ETC), at USC School of Cinematic Arts have created their own investigation groups and have already offered to collaborate to reach a common solution. The Digital TV Group (DTG), has committed to profiling a UK standard for 3DTV products and services. Other standard groups such as DVB, BDA,[disambiguation needed ]ARIB, ATSC, DVD Forum, IEC and others are to be involved in the process.
MPEG has been researching multi-view, stereoscopic, and 2D plus depth 3D video coding since the mid-1990s; the first result of this research is the Multiview Video Coding extension for MPEG-4 AVC that is currently undergoing standardization. MVC has been chosen by the Blu-ray disc association for 3D distribution. The format offers backwards compatibility with 2D Blu-ray players.
HDMI version 1.4, released in June 2009, defines a number of 3D transmission formats. The format "Frame Packing" (left and right image packed into one video frame with twice the normal bandwidth) is mandatory for HDMI 1.4 3D devices. All three resolutions (720p50, 720p60, and 1080p24) have to be supported by display devices, and at least one of those by playback devices. Other resolutions and formats are optional.While HDMI 1.4 devices will be capable of transmitting 3D pictures in full 1080p, HDMI 1.3 does not include such support. As an out-of-spec solution for the bitrate problem, a 3D image may be displayed at a lower resolution, like interlaced or at standard definition.
Main article: DVB 3D-TV
See also: High-definition television
DVB has established the DVB 3D-TV Specification. The following 3D-TV consumer configurations will be available to the public:
For the two broadcast scenarios above, initial requirements are for Pay-TV broadcasters to deliver 3D-TV services over existing HD broadcasting infrastructures, and to use existing receivers (with firmware upgrade, as required) to deliver 3D content to 3D-TV sets, via an HDMI or equivalent connection, if needed. This is termed Frame Compatible. There are a range of Frame Compatible formats. They include the Side by Side (SbS) format, the Top and Bottom (TaB) format, and others.
A diagram of the 3D TV scheme
As of 2008, 3D programming is broadcast on Japanese cable channel BS 11 approximately four times per day.
Cablevision launched a 3D version of its MSG channel on March 24, 2010, available only to Cablevision subscribers on channel 1300. The channel is dedicated primarily to sports broadcasts, including MSG's 3D broadcast of a New York Rangers-New York Islanders game, limited coverage of the 2010 Masters Tournament, and (in cooperation with YES Network) a game between the New York Yankees and Seattle Mariners.
The first Australian program broadcast in high-definition 3D was Fox Sports coverage of the soccer game Australia-New Zealand on May 24, 2010.
Also in Australia, the Nine Network and Special Broadcasting Service will be bringing the State of Origin (matches on 26 May, 16 June and 7 July 2010) (Nine) and FIFA World Cup (SBS) in 3D on Channel 40 respectively.
In early 2010, Discovery Communications, Imax, and Sony announced plans to launch a 3D TV channel in the US with a planned launch in early 2011. At the same time, a Russian company Platform HD and its partners – General Satellite and Samsung Electronics – announced about their 3D television project, which would be the first similar project in Russia.
In Brazil Rede TV! became the first Terrestrial television to transmit 3D signal freely for all 3D enabled audience on 21 May. But despite their technology, its programming is still in poor[neutrality is disputed]quality.
Starting on June 11, 2010, ESPN launched a new channel, ESPN 3D, dedicated to 3D sports with up to 85 live events a year in 3D.
On 1 January 2010, the world's first 3D channel, SKY 3D, started broadcasting nationwide in South Korea by Korea Digital Satellite Broadcasting. The channel's slogan is "World No.1 3D Channel". This 24/7 channel uses the Side by Side technology at a resolution of 1920x1080i. 3D contents include education, animation, sport, documentary and performances.
A full 24 hour broadcast channel was announced at the 2010 Consumer Electronics show as a joint venture from IMAX, Sony, and the Discovery channel. The intent is to launch the channel in the United States by year end 2010.
DirecTV and Panasonic plan to launch 2 broadcast channels and 1 Video on demand channel with 3D content in June 2010. DirecTV previewed a live demo of their 3D feed at the Consumer Electronics Show held January 7–10, 2010.
In Europe, British Sky Broadcasting (Sky) launched a limited 3D TV broadcast service on April 3, 2010. Transmitting from the Astra 2A satellite at 28.2° east, Sky 3D broadcast a selection of live UK Premier League football matches to over 1000 British pubs and clubs equipped with a Sky+HD Digibox and 3D Ready TVs, and preview programmes provided for free to top-tier Sky HD subscribers with 3D TV equipment. This was later expanded to include a selection of films, sports, and entertainment programming launched to Sky subscribers on 1 October 2010.
On September 28, 2010, Virgin Media launched a 3D TV on Demand service.
Several other European pay-TV networks are also planning 3D TV channels and some have started test transmissions on other Astra satellites, including French pay-TV operator Canal+ which has announced its first 3D channel is to be launched in December 2010. Also the Spanish Canal+ has started the first broadcastings on May 18, 2010 and included 2010 FIFA World Cup matches in the new Canal+ 3D channel. Satellite operator SES started a free-to-air 3D demonstration channel on the Astra satellite at 23.5° east on May 4, 2010 for the opening of the 2010 ANGA Cable international trade fair using 3D programming supplied by 3D Ready TV manufacturer Samsung under an agreement between Astra and Samsung to co-promote 3D TV.
As of November 2010, there were eight 3D channels broadcasting to Europe from three Astra satellite positions, including demonstrations provided by Astra, pay-TV from BSkyB, Canal+ and others, and the Dutch Brava3D cultural channel, which provides a mix of classical music, opera and ballet free-to-air across Europe from Astra 23.5°E.
In April 2011, HIGH TV, a 3D Family Entertainment Channel Launched, Headquartered in NY with offices in Hong Kong and London HIGHTV 3D is the First International 24/7 3D Family Channel that features a unique mix of Entertainment, Lifestyle and Original Reality Shows in Full HD 3D. HIGHTV 3D benefits from large production capacities worldwide and will unveil the largest native 3D VOD library in the world with more than 450 hours of premium Native 3D Programs, Travel Destinations, Cooking Shows, Animation, Drama series,Extreme Sports, Reality Shows and Hollywood celebrities. The Channel Broadcast threw 8 Satellites Around the World,that Includes:Europe,Asia,Nordic Region,Russia,South America,Africa,Middle East and North America.
WildEarth is a 3D wildlife channel that began broadcasting on Freebox in France on the 1st April 2011. Made up entirely of native stereoscopic wildlife programming produced and owned by WildEarth. Initially the focus was mostly safari and has now widened to include underwater 3D content from around the world. WildEarth also distributes 3D series and shows through Global Media Consult.
In 1 January 2012, China's first 3D Test Channel lanuched by China Central Television and 5 other networks.
In February 2012 Telecable de Tricom, a major Dominican cable TV provider, announced the launch of the first 3D TV programming package in Latin America. As of march 3,2012, the only 3D channel available is WildEarth.
HIGH TV 3D
United Kingdom and Ireland
Belgium (and other European countries)
Germany and Austria
Sky Deutschland only
Sport 5 3D
Sky Italia only
ITI Group only
Canal+ 3D España
NEXT Man 3D
NEXT Lejdis 3D
NEXT Young 3D
Videocon d2h only
SKY PerfecTV! only
TV Azteca 3D
Chinese 3D Test Channel
Made up by 6 different TV networks
There have been several notable examples in television where 3D episodes have been produced, typically as one hour specials or special events.
The first-ever 3D broadcast in the UK was an episode of the weekly science magazineThe Real World, made by Television South and screened in the UK in February 1982. The programme included excerpts of test footage shot by Philips in the Netherlands. Red/green 3D glasses were given away free with copies of the TV Times listings magazine, but the 3D sections of the programme were shown in monochrome. The experiment was repeated nationally in December 1982, with red/blue glasses allowing colour 3D to be shown for the first time. The programme was
repeated the following weekend followed by a rare screening of the WesternFort Tistarring George Montgomery and Joan Vohs.
The sitcom3rd Rock From The Suntwo-part episode "Nightmare On Dick Street", where several of the characters' dreams are shown in 3D. The episode cued its viewers to put on their 3D glasses by including "3D on" and "3D off" icons in the corner of the screen as a way to alert them as to when the 3D sequences would start and finish. The episode used the Pulfrich 3D technique.
Recent uses of 3D in television include the dramaMediumand the comedyChuck(Season 2, episode 12). The showArrested Developmentbriefly used 3D in an episode.
Channel 4 in the UK ran a short season of 3D programming in November 2009 including Derren Brown and The Queen in 3D.
On 31 January 2010, BSKYB became the first broadcaster in the world to show a live sports event in 3D when Sky Sports screened a football match between Manchester United and Arsenal to a public audience in several selected pubs.
On January 31, 2010, the 52nd Grammy Awards featured a Michael Jackson Tribute Sequence in 3D, using anaglyph format.
The very first stereoscopic indie live action comedy one hour show called Safety Geeks : SVI : 3D specifically for 3DTV and 3D VOD was produced and released in March 2010 through Digital Dynamic Depth / Yabazam and their Yabazam website portal. Safety Geeks SVI 3D Safety Geeks:SVI is the comic adventures of an elite force of safety experts; the P.O.S.H. (Professional Occupational Safety Hazard) team. Obsessed with making the world safer, the CSI-like team investigates accidents to find out what went wrong and who is to blame. It won the Los Angeles 3D film Festival in 2010 as best pilot or series in 3D.
In April 2010, the Masters Tournament was broadcast in live 3D on DirecTV, Comcast, and Cox.
The Roland Garros tennis tournament in Paris, from May 23 to June 6, 2010, was filmed in 3D (center court only) and broadcast live via ADSL and fiber to Orange subscribers throughout France in a dedicated Orange TV channel.
Fox Sports broadcasts the first program in 3D in Australia when the Socceroos played The New Zealand All Whites at the MCG on May 24, 2010.
The Nine Network broadcasts the first Free-to-air 3D telecast when the Queensland Maroons faced the New South Wales Blues at ANZ Stadium on May 26, 2010.
On May 29, 2010, Sky broadcasts Guinness Premiership Final in 3D in selected pubs and clubs.
25 matches in the FIFA World Cup 2010 were broadcast in 3D.
The Inauguration of Philippine President Noynoy Aquino on June 30, 2010 was the first presidential inauguration to telecast in live 3D by GMA Network. However, the telecast was only available in select places.
The 2010 Coke Zero 400 was broadcasted in 3D on July 3 on NASCAR.com and DirecTV along with Comcast, Time Warner, and Bright House cable systems.
Astro broadcasted the 2010 FIFA World Cup Final on July 11, 2010 in 3-D on their B.yond service.
Satellite delivered Bell TV in Canada began to offer a full time pay-TV, 3D channel to its subscribers on 27 July 2010.
The 2010 PGA Championship was broadcast in 3D for four hours on August 13, 2010, from 3–7 pm EDT. The broadcast was available on DirecTV, Comcast, Time Warner Cable, Bright House Networks, Cox Communications, and Cablevision.
In September 2010, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's first 3D broadcast was a special about the Canadian monarch, Elizabeth II, and included 3-D film footage of the Queen's 1953 coronation as well as 3D video of her 2010 tour of Canada. This marks the first time the historical 3D images have been seen anywhere on television as well as the first broadcast of a Canadian produced 3D programme in Canada.
FioS and the NFL partnered to broadcast the September 2, 2010, pre-season game between the New England Patriots and the New York Giants in 3D. The game was only broadcast in 3D in the northeast.
The 2010 AFL Grand Final, on 5 September 2010, was broadcasted in 3D from the Seven Network.
Rachael Rayaired a 3D Halloween Bash on October 29, 2010.
The first Japanese television series in 3D,Tokyo Control, premiered on January 19, 2011.
In May 2011, 3net released the first docu-reality TV series entitledBullprooffilmed in native 3D made by Digital Revolution Studios.
The 2011 3D Creative Arts Awards "Your World in 3D" was the first award show filmed in native 3D and televised on 3net 3D channel broadcasted on DirectTV. The production was filmed at the Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood.
The semi-finals, Bronze Final and Final matches of the 2011 Rugby World Cup will be broadcast in 3D.
Singapore based Tiny Island Productions is currently producingDream Defenders, which will be available in both autostereoscopic and stereoscopic 3D formats. 3net, which acquired the series, describes it as the first stereoscopic children's series and will air on 25 September 2011.
In July 2011, the BBC announced that the grand final ofStrictly Come Dancingin December 2011 will air in 3-D.
The BBC broadcast the 2011 finals of the Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Championships in 3D.
In february 2012 Telecable de Tricom, a major Dominican cable TV provider, announced the launch of the first 3D TV programming package in Latin America. As of march 3,2012 the only 3D channel available is Wildearth.
Avi Arad is currently developing a 3D Pacman TV Show.
The Xbox Live broadcasts of the 2012 Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants will be available in RealD 3D.
The 2011 UEFA Champions League Final match between Manchester United and Barcelona was broadcasted live in 3D format on a Ukrainian-produced EKTA
screen in Gothenburg, Sweden. The screen made it to The Guinness Book of World Records as the world's biggest screen. The live 3D broadcast was provided by the company Viasat.
Some viewers have complained of headaches and visual problems after watching 3D TV and films. There have been several warnings, especially for the elderly.
It is believed that approximately 12% of people are unable to properly see 3D images, due to a variety of medical conditions.According to another experiment up to 30% of people have very weak stereoscopic vision preventing them from depth perception based on stereo disparity. This nullifies or greatly decreases immersion effects of digital stereo to them